Keep Us Strong WikiLeaks logo

Currently released so far... 1295 / 251,287


Browse latest releases

Browse by creation date

Browse by origin


Browse by tag


Browse by classification

Community resources

courage is contagious


If you are new to these pages, please read an introduction on the structure of a cable as well as how to discuss them with others. See also the FAQs

Understanding cables
Every cable message consists of three parts:
  • The top box shows each cables unique reference number, when and by whom it originally was sent, and what its initial classification was.
  • The middle box contains the header information that is associated with the cable. It includes information about the receiver(s) as well as a general subject.
  • The bottom box presents the body of the cable. The opening can contain a more specific subject, references to other cables (browse by origin to find them) or additional comment. This is followed by the main contents of the cable: a summary, a collection of specific topics and a comment section.
To understand the justification used for the classification of each cable, please use this WikiSource article as reference.

Discussing cables
If you find meaningful or important information in a cable, please link directly to its unique reference number. Linking to a specific paragraph in the body of a cable is also possible by copying the appropriate link (to be found at theparagraph symbol). Please mark messages for social networking services like Twitter with the hash tags #cablegate and a hash containing the reference ID e.g. #08STATE93970.
Reference ID Created Released Classification Origin
08STATE93970 2008-09-02 23:11 2010-12-06 17:05 CONFIDENTIAL Secretary of State

DE RUEHC #3970 2462336
O 022330Z SEP 08

Tuesday, 02 September 2008, 23:30
C O N F I D E N T I A L STATE 093970 


EO 12958 DECL: 09/02/2018 


Classified By: Classified by IO/DAS Gerald Anderson for reasons 1.4(b) and (d)
1. (U) This is an action message. Please see paragraph 3.

2. (C) Summary. Missions should be prepared to assist the U.S. Delegation to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its efforts to secure a positive outcome to elections for working group co-chair positions at the IPCC Plenary being held in Geneva, August 31-September 4. USDEL is working actively to prevent the election of an Iranian scientist to the developing-nation co-chairmanship of Working Group Two, a position which would pair him with a U.S. scientist running unopposed for developed-nation co-chair of the same group. The focus of USG efforts is to support an alternate candidacy for the position, although the full slate of active candidates and their potential for election will not be known until the later stages of the plenary sessions. Curricula vitae of some of the leading candidates are at paras 6-10. End Summary.

3. (C) Action Request. Missions should assign a Point-of-Contact for this issue and provide phone and e-mail information to the US Mission to the UN in Geneva. USUN should appoint its own POC and relay contact information for all POCs to USDEL IPCC. In the event that USDEL requires assistance in working with counterpart delegations (e.g., coming to a consensus on a single strong alternate candidate to support), USDEL may contact Mission POCs directly, or via US Mission Geneva, to ask that Missions apprise host governments of the situation, with a view to arranging for instructions from capitals. Missions should do everything possible to assist USDEL if they receive such a request. Until such a call is received, however, Missions should take no action on this issue; USDEL will be interacting directly with host-country expert delegations in Geneva, and premature contacts/demarches with host country government officials in capitals, even to preview the background of the situation, could be highly counter-productive. Point of Contact for USDEL is OES/EGC,s Donna Lee XXXXXXXXXXXX.

4. (C) Background. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ( is a highly influential body established by the World Meteological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to assess scientific issues related to climate change. This year, the U.S. has nominated Stanford Professor Christopher Field to the developed-country chair of IPCC Working Group Two, which assesses the vulnerability of socio-economic and natural systems to climate change and the options for adaptation. His nomination is unopposed. Iran, however, has nominated Dr. Mostafa Jafari to be the developing-country co-chair of the same working group. Jafari is a highly-qualified scientist with research ties to the UK and Japan, but he is also a senior Iranian government employee who has represented Iran in international negotiations. Co-chair appointments are for a minimum of four years, and require close collaboration and often travel to or extended residencies in each others, countries. Having U.S. and Iranian co-chairs would be problematic and potentially at odds with overall U.S. policy towards Iran, and would significantly complicate the U.S. commitment to funding the Working Group Two secretariat. U.S. withdrawal of its nominee, however, would effectively give Iran a veto over future U.S. nominees in UN bodies. Moreover, having a U.S. co-chair at the IPCC significantly bolsters U.S. interests on climate change, a key foreign policy issue.

5. (C) Background continued. Prior to arrival in Geneva, USDEL contacted IPCC Chairman Dr. Rajendra Pachauri (please protect), who agreed to work on this issue to avoid the potential for disruption to one the organization,s three core working groupsXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX. Next, USDEL contacted the Austrian delegate serving as EU representative on the nominating committee that manages the election process, who showed an understanding of U.S. equities. USDEL contacted the Malian and Argentinean delegations, who have nominated highly-qualified co-chair candidates (see below), and the German delegation, who have been interested in advancing the Malian for co-chair of Working Group Three, for which Germany has nominated an unopposed candidate as developed-country co-chair. The Malians subsequently told USDEL that their candidate, Dr. Yauba Sokona, prefers Working Group Two to Working Group Three. Also prior to arrival in Geneva, USDEL contacted the UK and Netherlands delegations, both of which we have worked closely with in the past. Based on experience at prior IPCC plenaries, events related to the Working Group elections will likely unfold unpredictably and rapidly, necessitating a rapid and flexible USG response.

6. (SBU) CV of Iranian candidate:
Mostafa Jafari
Personal Information: DPoB: 1956, Tehran
Education: -- Post doctorate research in Plant Ecophysiology Methodology in 1997 (Japan). -- Ph.D. in Plant Science (Ecology) in 1990 (UK). -- Short course in Agricultural Economy in 1983 (Tehran). -- B.Sc. in Forest and Range graduated in 1978 (Iran). -- Diploma in 1974 (Tehran).

Membership in Professional Organizations: -- Japanese Forestry Society -- The British Grassland Society -- The British Ecological Society -- International Union of Forestry research Organization -- Asia-Pacific Association of Forestry Research Institutions -- New York Academy of Science -- The International Association for Ecology
Professional Responsibilities: -- Starting to work as chief of Agricultural committee in 1979 (Tehran). -- Member of Scientific Staff since 1990. -- Lecturer in Universities (Ecophysiology, Ecology, Range Rehabilitation, Plant Geography) and advisor of several postgraduate students in different universities. -- Head of High Council for Forest, Range and Soil in Forest and Range Organization (highest technical body in FRO) 1990-1993 (consideration and approval of more than 200 silviculture projects with cooperation of council members). -- Director General of Studies and Coordinating Office in Forest and Range Organization 1991-1994. -- Head of Coordinating Council for Forest, Range and Watershed Management, 1992 (nominated by Minister). -- Member of Agricultural Commission of National Research Council of I.R. Iran, 1992-1995 and 1995-1998 (nominated by First Deputy of President). -- Director (President) of Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands, I.R. Iran, from 1992 to Nov. 1997. (with 600 staff including 250 scientific researcher and 900 research projects, publishing 200 books in this period) -- Full authority representative of Minister and Member of Iranian National Sustainable Development Committee, 1993-1998. -- Chief, Sustainable Development Committee of Ministry, 1995-1998. -- Member of Expert and Academic Advisory Commission and Chief of Environmental Committee in Planning and Budget Organization, 1997-1998. -- Chief, Expert Committee of Forests and Rangelands (Agricultural Commission of National Research Council of I.R. Iran), 1997-1998. -- Advisor to the Minister, 1997-1998. -- Permanent Representative of I.R. Iran to FAO office, Rome, June 1998- March 2003. -- Advisor to the Deputy Minister and Head of FRWO, and National Forest Focal Point, from March Oct. 2005 -- Head of TP Secretariat of Low Forest Cover Countries (LFCCs, International Intergovernmental Organization), Since, March 2003. -- International Affair Advisor to the Deputy Minister and Head of IRIMO, and Director of First Vice President Office of WMO, Since August 2004. asp -- Head of High Council for Forest, Range and Soil in Forest, Range and Watershed management Organization (highest technical body in FRWO) from Oct. 2005 to July 2006, (considering and approve of main Silvicultural project in FRWO with cooperation of council members). -- Scientific member of Research Institute of Forest and Rangelands,
Major Publications: Publication of 63 articles including five books and two university textbooks, including: -- Jafari, M. (1997a), The Present Status of Forestry Research in I.R. Iran, in Four Articles on Forests, Technical Publication No. 176-1997, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, pp 121. -- Jafari, M. (1997b), Present Status of Afforestation Research in I.R. Iran, in Four Articles on Forests, Technical Publication No. 176-1997, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, pp 121. -- Jafari, M. (2006), An Overview On Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) with An Introduction to Monitoring and Evaluation, ISBN: 964-6931-80-4, Pouneh Publisher, Tehran, Iran, pp 170. -- Jafari M. (2007a), Review on needfulness for plant ecophysiological study and investigation on climate change,s effects on forest, rangeland and desert ecosystems, presented in Workshop: Climate Change in South-Eastern European Countries: Causes, Impacts, Solutions, 26- 27 March 2007, Orangerie, Burggarten, Graz, Austria. -- Jafari M. (2007b), Climate Change and IPCC Assessments (Abstract of Keynote Lecture of the Symposium), in The Final Report of ICCAP, The Research Project on the Impact of Climate Changes on Agricultural Production System in Arid Areas, March 2007, ICCAP Publication 10-Japan, ISBN 4902325-09-8, pp 315-317. -- Cruz, R.V., M. Jafari, et al, 2007: Asia. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 469-506. -- Falkenmark M., C. M. Finlayson and L. J. Gordon (Coordinating lead authors), 2007, Agriculture, water, and ecosystems: avoiding the costs of going too far” Chapter 6, in book entitled “Water for Food, Water for Life” published by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), UK. (M. Jafari, Reviewer of chapter six).
Research projects: Managing director of research project in RIFR entitled: &Investigation on Climate Change Effects on Forest Ecosystems in Gilan and Mazandaran Provinces with Emphasize of Wood Dendrology Studies8
Language knowledge: Persian, English (fluent); Italian, Arabic, French.
International negotiations: -- UNCED (Rio de Janeiro) Conference on Climate Change /inf02.pdf /inf02.htm -- Kyoto Protocol, Leading Author (LA) of Fourth Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (AR4 of IPCC WG II / Chapter 10 Asia ) 2004-2007) -- Biological Diversity, Combat Desertification, Forestry negotiations, IPF, IFF, UNFF, html m1e.pdf html html -- 10th World Forestry Congress, Paris (vice president of WFC X, chairman of two technical working groups); -- 12th World Forestry Congress, Quebec (vice president of WFC XII, chairman of two technical working groups and one open forum), -- Head of Intergovernmental Organization (IGO) of Tehran Process Secretariat for Low Forest Cover Countries (TPS for LFCCs, International IGO) since 2003 (ftp:// 42E00.pdf)

7. (SBU) Biographic Summary of Malian candidate:
Youba Sokona Executive Secretary, Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS) PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION:

Dr. Youba Sokona has been Executive Secretary of the Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS) since June 2004. OSS is an independent international organization based in Tunisia, comprised of 22 African and European countries, regional and international organizations, and representatives of civil society organizations. The Executive Secretary directs program operations and implements the decisions taken by the Executive Board and General Assembly.

Throughout his career, Dr Sokona has served in various advisory capacities to African governments and organisations.  He has published several books and articles on the issues of energy, environment and development with a focus on Africa. Prior to his appointment to OSS he was:

Coordinator, Energy Programme, and Executive Secretary for International Relations, Environement and Developpement du Tiers Monde (ENDA-TM), based in Dakar, Senegal (1982)2003); and
Professor, &Ecole Nationale d,Ingenieurs de Bamako8 (National Engineering School, Bamako, Mali).

Dr. Sokona has participated in many international events on climate change, desertification, and biodiversity. He is often invited by African governments and international organisations, such as the World Bank, UNDP, UNEP, UNCCD, etc., to be a member of steering committees, to conduct programme evaluations, to chair high-level sessions in international conferences, and to contribute scientific and policy papers.
He took part in the international negotiations and follow-up events to the Rio process and the three UN environmental conventions on Climate Change, Desertification, and Biodiversity.

Member, Technical Advisory Group of the joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistant Program (present);
Board Member, International Institute for Environment and Development (present); and Board Member, Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development (present).

University of Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (PhD, Engineering and Earth Sciences)
Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris
Ecole Nationale d,Ingenieurs de Bamako (Mali)
8. (SBU) CV of Argentinean candidate:
Vicente Ricardo Barros
A PhD in Meteorological Science, Dr. Barros is a Chief Researcher at the Conicet and Climatology Professor at the University of Buenos Aires, School of Natural Sciences, where he heads the Masters program in Environmental Science. He has written more than one hundred papers on climatic problems, half of which have been published in international scientific magazines. He took part in drafting a chapter of the Third Report of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climatic Change in 2001.

1961-65 University of Buenos Aires (UBA): Licenciado in Meteorological Sciences
1969-71 The University of Michigan: Master of Science in Meteorology:
1972-73 UBA: Doctor in Meteorological Sciences
Management Position:
Faculty of Sciences (UBA) Director of the Masters program in Environmental Sciences (since 1999)
Scientific position:
National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET) Senior scientist; and Department of Atmosphere and Ocean Sciences (DAOS) of the UBAx
Teaching position:
University of Buenos Aires; Full Professor in Climatology (since 1987)
Past management positions:
1989-92 Member of the Directory of the National Commission of Environmental Policies
1991-92 National Report to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development and Environment, Rio de Janeiro 1992, 579 pp. 1991. Coordinator
1993-97 Director of the Department of Atmosphere and Ocean Sciences (UBA)
1994-02 Member of the Directive Council of the Faculty of Sciences (UBA)
1996-97 National Director of the Project: Greenhouse gasses emissions inventory and Climate Change Studies on Vulnerability and Mitigation. GEF-UNDP- SECYT
1997-98 President of the Commission of the Exact and non Biological Natural Sciences segment of the National plan on Science and Technology 1999-2001
1999 Technical Director of the Emission target study of greenhouse gases. EPA- UNDP
1999 Revision of the First National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
El Cambio Climtico Global 2004. Ed, Libros del Zorzal, Buenos Aires 172 pp. Segunda edicion en 2006. Traducido al Checo y Publicado en 2006 por Mlada Fronta con el titulo Globalni zmena klimatu
El Cambio Climtico en el Ro de la Plata. 2005. Eds. V. Barros, A. Menendez and G, Nagy. CIMA. Buenos Aires
El Cambio Climtico en la Cuenca del Plata. 2006. Eds. V. Barros, R. Clarke and P. Silva Dias. CIMA. Buenos Aires.
Climate Change and Adaptation, Eds, Neil Leary, James Adejuwon, Vicente Barros, Ian Burton and Rodel Lasco, Earthscan Publishers, London 2007 Coordinator
Activities as an international expert:
1983 Project on basic information to develop wind energy in Uruguay. UNDP/WMO
1987 Planning of the wind energy use in Cuba. UNDP/WMO
1987-91 Project on wind energy in the Energy Department of Uruguay. UNDP/UNIDO
Activities in international organizations
1997-00 Member of the Atmospheric Observation Panel for Climate del Global Climate Observing System. WMO-UNEP
1999-00 Contributing author to the chapter on Detection and attribution of climate change of the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
2001-03 Member of the panel on the Plata basin of VAMOS (CLIVAR)
Journal reviewer activities:
Acta Oceanografica (Argentina), Atmosfera (Mexico), Climate Research (Germany), Geoacta (Argentina), Geofisica Internacional (Mexico),Geophysical Research Letters (USA), Int. Journal of Climatology (United Kingdom), J. Climate (USA), J. Geophysical Research (USA), Meteorologica (Argentina), Magazine of the Academy of Sciences (Brazil), Revista Geofisica (IPGH), Journal of Hydrometeotology (USA), Journal of Arid Environments (Holanda), REGA (Brasil-Argentina)
Publications In Refereed Journals:

Climate variability over subtropical South America and the South American Monsoon: A Review 2003: V. Barros, M. Doyle, M. Gonzalez, I. Camilloni, R. Bejaran and R. Caffera. Meteorologica, 27, 34-58
Extreme discharge events in the Paran River and their climate forcing 2003:. I. Camilloni and V. Barros J. of Hydrology, 278, 94-106
Implications of a Dynamic Target of Greenhouse Gases Emission Reduction: the Case of Argentina 2002. Environmental and Development Economics, July 2002. Barros, V. and M. Conte Grand
Differences in the El Nio response over the Southern Hemisphere 2003. J. Climate.17, 1741-1753. Vera C., Silvestri, V. Barros and A. Carril.

Impact of Global Change on the Coastal Areas of the Rio de la Plata. AIACC Notes. Junio 2003.Vo 2, .9-12. Barros, V., Camilloni, I. and A. Menendez

La temperatura del Atlntico Sur y la diferencia de caudales del Rio Parana durante los eventos El Nio 1982-83 y 1997-98. 2004. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia I. Camilloni y V. Barros.

The major discharge events in the Paraguay River; Magnitudes, source regions and climate forcings. J Hydrometeorology 2004 Vol 5, 1061-1070.. V. Barros, L Chamorro, G. Coronel and J. Baez
An Observed Trend in Central South American Precipitation 2004. J. Climate. 17: 4357-4367 B. Liebmann, Vera, C. Carvalho, L., Camilloni, I., Barros, V., Hoerling, M y Allured, D. A.

Observed trends in indices of daily temperature extremes in South America 1960-2000 2005. J. Climate, 18, 5011-5023. Vincent, L.A., T.C. Peterson, V.R. Barros, et al

Trends in total and extreme South American precipitation 1960-2000 and links with sea surface temperature 2006. J. Climate, 19, 1490-1512. Haylock M. R., Barros V. R., et al

Seasonal-to-decadal predictability and prediction of South American climate 2006. J. Climate, 19, 5988)6004. P. Nobre, J. Marengo, I. F. A. Cavalcanti, G. Obregon, V. Barros, I. Camilloni, N. Campos and A. G. Ferreira

How does Soil Moisture Influence the Early Stages of the South American Monsoon? 2008 J. Climate. 21. 185-213. E. Collini, E. Berbery, V. Barros and, M. Pyle.

Precipitation trends in southeastern South America: relationship with ENSO phases and the low-level circulation. 2008. Theoretical and Appl. Climatology. In press. V. Barros, M. Doyle and I. Camilloni.
Land use impact on the Uruguay River discharge 2008 Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, LXXXXX, Doi:10.1029/2008GL033707. Aceptado. R. Saurral, V. Barros, and D. Lettenmaier

Proceedings of congresses, workshops and other scientific meetings:
Interanual variability of the South Atlantic High and rainfall in southeastern South America during summer months. I. Camilloni, M. Doyle y V. Barros. CLIVAR. 2004

Climate change in the environmental agenda for Argentina V. Barros, H. Carlino, and Daniel Perczyk. Second AIACC Regional Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean. Buenos Aires, 24-27 Agosto 2004.
Climate scenarios for the 21st century: influence on the discharges of the Plata basin I. Camilloni, R. Saurral, R. Mezhe and V. Barros. Fourth international workshop on development and management of dams in the Plata basin; Salto Grande, Noviembre 2005

Extreme Precipitations in Argentina, Trends and Climate Change. M. Re, R. Saurral and V. Barros. Fourth International Workshop on Development and Management of Dams in the Plata Basin; Salto Grande, November 2005.

Seasonal dependence of surface-atmosphere interactions for subtropical South America. Collini, E. A.; Berbery, E. H.; Barros, V. . 8th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Abril 2006, Foz de Iguazu. Proceedings pag. 999.
Sea-level pressure patterns in South America and the adjacent oceans in the IPCC AR4 models. Di Luca, A.; Camilloni, I.; Barros, V. 8th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Abril 2006, Foz de Iguazu. Proceedings pag. 235.
Precipitation trends in southeastern South America: relationship with ENSO phases. Doyle, M.; Barros, V. 8th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Abril 2006, Foz de Iguazu. Proceedings pag. 1513
Assessing long-term discharges of the Plata River Saurral, R.; Mezher, R.; Barros, V. 8th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Abril 2006, Foz de Iguazu. Proceedings pag. 821.

Extreme precipitations in Argentina Re, M.; Saurral, R.; Barros, V. 8th International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology and Oceanography. Abril 2006, Foz de Iguazu. Proceedings pag. 1575.
Other reports:

- Implementacion de modelos matematicos para el pronostico del tiempo. 1972. SMN. Lichtenstein, E, C.Martinez, V. Barros, W. Vargas, H. Hordij y H. Ciapessoni. - Coordinacion de la presentacion del proyecto de desarrollo del CENPAT al Banco interamericano de Desarrollo. CONICET 1978. Barros, V. y J. Vercino

National policies:
- National Report to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development and Environment, Rio de Janeiro, 1992. 579 pp. 1991 (in Spanish). - Background Report for the First National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1997 (in Spanish).

- Greenhouse gasses emissions inventory and Climate Change Studies on Vulnerability and Mitigation. In Argentina, SECYT 1998, 5 volumes (in Spanish). - Background report for the Revision of the First National Communication to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, Secretary of Sustainable Development and Environment, 1999, 104 pp (in Spanish). - Inventory of Greenhouse gasses of the Argentine Republic, year 1997. Secretary of Sustainable Development and Environment, 1999, 150 pp (in Spanish).

Since 1969, more than 100 conferences to scientific, diplomatic and business communities and for the public. In 1991 and 1992, numerous conferences about the Argentine Report to the Conference of United Nations on Environment and Sustainable Development of 1992. 

Similarly in 1997 and 1998 on climate change and the First Argentine Communication to the Framework Convention on Climate Change and on its revision in 1999.

9. (SBU) CV of Moroccan candidate:
Abdalah Mokssit

Head of the National Center on Climate and Meteorological Research (Direction Meteorologie Nationale), Casablanca. Civil Engineer in Meteorology Specialization in Global Circulation Modelling

Areas of expertise: -- Numerical weather Prediction -- Climate variability -- Climate Rediction -- Climate Change dtection and attribution
Major Research Projects: -- Climatology: Dryness studies in Morocco and the world. -- Climate Change: Co-Chair of the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection CLL/WMO. -- Climate application impact studies: Climate change and water resource management in Morocco  -- Climate change and agriculture in the Tadla region of Morocco
Speaks and writes Arabic, French and English fluently
Major Publications: -- H C Upadhayaya and A. Mokssit: Adiabatic on linear normal mode initialization for a grid point Global model; Processings of Indian Academy of Sciences, volume 100 Number 1, Mars 1991; model. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences volume 100 Number 1 Mars 1991; -- Mokssit et R. Gnaoui: realisation d’un outil d’anlyse de Protocole Atlas 400; Mmoire de trvaux de fin d’etudes realise chez Transpac, juin 1987; -- Mokssit: Outil pour la reussi te du Management par Projets; Memoire realise dans le cadre du cycle superieur de management du ministre de l’equipement , juin 1997; -- Mokssit et al: Le point sur la secheresse au Maroc; dition du Ministere des travaux publics; 1996; -- Mokssit et al: La prevision a longue echeance au Maroc; Workshop on Long Range Forecasting; Nairobi 1998; -- Mokssit et al: Les changements Climatiques et Ressources en eau; etude realisee dans le cadre du projet Maghrebin (RAB/ G94 finance par le PNUD) sur les changements climatiques;
-- Mokssit et al: Changements climatiques et ressources en eau dans le bassin versant de l’OURGHA; -- Mokssit: la secheresse dans le climat Marocain; Atelier sur la prevention et la gestion des situations de scheresse dans les pays du Maghreb, Juin 1996; -- Mokssit: Numerical Simulation of Devastating Meteorological Situations; INM/WMO Symposium on Cycllones and Hasardous weather in Mediterranean, Avril 1997; -- Mokssit; Development of priority Climate Indices for Africa; paru dans regional Climate Studies/ Mediterranean Climate, February 2001; -- A. Dave Easterling, A. Mokssit et AL: Workshop Report on Climate Change Indices; BAMS (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society); -- Mokssit: Chapter 4 on Drought ( au niveau mondial), 7 eme revue de l’OMM sur le Climat Mondial; -- Mokssit: On climate change Extreme Indices; 7eme revue de  l’OMM sur le Climat Mondial; -- F.Zwiers, H. Cattle, T.C. Peterson and A. Mokssit: Detecting climate: WMO bulletin Volume 52, No 3, July 2003

10. (SBU) Biographic Summary of Maldivan candidate:

Amjad Abdulla
Amjad Abdulla is the Director General at the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water of Maldives and has been working in the Ministry since 1990 in various positions. He is the national focal point for the National Adaptation Programme of Action for Climate Change. He is the lead negotiator from the Maldives to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Mr. Abdulla was a member of National Commission for the Protection of the Environment (NCPE) from 2003 to 2006 and is also a member of a number of task forces and committees appointed by the President to develop the strategic plans and policies on environment and development. He has worked nationally and internationally as a freelance consultant on various environmental projects. He has also coordinated and managed several donor assisted projects at the Ministry.

Mr. Abdulla is also author and contributing author to several reports of high national significance: Maldives National Adaptation Programme of Action on Climate Change; First National Communication of Maldives to UNFCCC; Third Environment Action Plan; National Sustainable Development Strategy. He has also written and published several reports and research papers relating to environmental planning and the economic vulnerability of Small Island States. He is also has experience in planning and designing of several coastal developments, including, harbours, jetties, breakwater and other shore protection measures for several islands in the Maldives.

Mr. Abdulla has the distinction of having represented the Maldives at a number of international conferences including the negotiation to review the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the Mauritius International meeting in 2005. He has also represented Maldives at the UNFCCC negotiations. Mr. Abdulla was the Vice-Chair of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) under UNFCCC from December 2004 to December 2006 and chaired the 22nd and 23rd Session of the SBSTA. He is also a member of the Enforcement Branch of the Kyoto compliance committee and an alternate member of the Adaptation Fund Board under UNFCC. He is also the current chair of the LDC group for climate negotiations under UNFCCC.

Mr. Abdulla possesses an honours degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Brighton, UK and a MSc, in Environmental Science, Policy and Planning from the University of Bath, UK. His professional areas of interest include environmental economics, environmental planning, sustainable development and climate change.